This bibliography lists and comments the resources used to prepare all the materials included in the Technical Metadata Set Subdomain Expert Portfolio.


1.Day, M.(1999). Metadata for Digital Preservation:An Update. Ariadne, Issue 22. Retrieved September 25, 2002, from

This document reviews the developments of major preservation metadata initiatives. Useful to understand concepts related to digital preservation strategies and the OAIS Model. Also how these preservation initiatives have interpreted and adapted the OAIS Model to their metadata sets.

2. CEDARS. Metadata for Digital Preservation:The CEDARS Project Outline Specification. Definition of metadata elements for an information package. Retrieved October 22, 2002 from

Introduces recommended elements for an information package that includes preservation descriptive metadata. Based on the OAIS Model.

3. Gilliland-Swetland A.(2000) Setting the Stage. Introduction to Metadata. Retrieved August 23, 2002, from Getty Research Institute. Introduction to Metadata Web Site,

It is a fundamental article to understand the principles behind the concept of metadata, its different uses and components. As the author points out, the potential of metadata changes over time. As the article was written in 2000, in the light of what is written today it is obvious how the scope of metadata has already expanded.

4. Kushel, D.(2002). From the Electronic Media Group: Digital Documentation: We Are There, but Enter with Care. AIC News, Vol. 27, No.6 p1-9.

The article discusses the use of digital technology in preservation documentation. It reveals the concerns that conservation practitioners have about documenting their treatments in digital format. Until today, to assure the long-term preservation of preservation documentation conservators are encouraged to obtain a stable hard-copy of all their digital records. The article shows how and why professional conservators, who do take advantage of digital technologies for documentation, still have reservations about using electronic media to store preservation documentation in the long term. The article suggests that professional conservators are waiting to find out how technologies will evolve into a standarized alternatives.

5. Leupers, Reiner. (2002). Retargetable Compiler Technology.Retrieved November 3, 2002 from

The tutorial covers the background of compilers, explains the concept of retargetable compilers, and describes a specific retargetable compiler named Lancelot. Still, it is a very complex tutorial, and even when some basic concepts can be extracted from it, a sound computer science background is needed to understand it.

6. Lupovici, C., Masares, J. (2000).Metadata for Long-Term Preservation. NEDLIB. Retrieved September 24, 2002, from,

Introduces the preservation metadata elements designed to manage the preservation of electronic publications within an Electronic Deposit System based on the OAIS Model. Some elements developed for this initiative had been adopted by the OCLC and RLG recommendation model. It introduces the concept of compilers in the metadata elements.

7. McGovern, Nancy,Y. (February 2002). Preservation Metadata Resources. Prepared for CUL Metadata Working Group Meeting. Retrieved October 15, 2002, from

Bibliography on preservation metadata. It includes a handout that synthesizes the recommendations for preservation metadata elements elaborated by the OCLC/RLG Preservation Metadata Working Group. The bibliographic resources are categorized according to their relevance.

8. McKemmish, S.(1998) Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow: A Continuum of Responsibility. Retrieved August August 12, 2002, from

The article explains the concept of records continuum. Thus, it is helpful to think about metadata elements needed in order to preserve digital objects from creation and throughout their continuum.

9. Lagoze C, & Payette, S.(2000). Metadata: Principles, Practices, and Challenges.In Kenney, Anne, R. Rieger, Oya, Y. Moving Theory into Practice: Digital Imaging for Libraries and Archiges. California: Research Library Group

This is one of the most consulted texts on implementation and management of digitization projects in libraries and archives. In the chapter devoted to metadata for digital imaging projects the importance of developing preservation-oriented metadata is emphasized. It address the need of a metadata set to accommodate all the functions of the digital objects such as discovery, presentation, access, and preservation. The book was published before many important preservation metadata initiatives publisized their own findings.

10. National Library of Australia.(1999). Preservation Metadata for Library Collections; Exposure Draft. Retrieved October 15, 2002, from

Draft that presents the preservation metadata elements decide for the digital collections of the NLA. The elements are based on the OAIS model and so far it is the only initiate that address the individual characteristics of different types of digital objects: audio, text, images, databases.

11. OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation Metadata .(2001 ). Preservation Metadata for Digital Objects: A review of the State of the Art. Retrieved September 15, 2002, from wp.pdf

This document reviews the OAIS model - a digital archival repository -, as well as the major preservation metadata initiates that had been devised based on the OAIS model. It gives a thorough explanation of the components of the model and how the different Preservation Metadata projects had devised preservation metadata sets based on their interpretation of the OAIS model and the needs of their institutions. Of particular importance is the way in which the document explains how the OAIS model dissects the digital objects as well as the environment in which they will be preserved. This dissection of the digital objects allows to identify the elements that need to be documented in a preservation metadata set. It also describes and compares the elements devised by the three main Preservation Metadata Initiatives.

12. OCLC/RLG Working Group on Preservation Metadata .(2001). A Recommendation for Content Information. Retrieved October 17, 2002, from

This document follows the one that is referenced above. After the three main Preservation Metadata Initiatives had been compared, the OCLC/RLG Working Group has devised a recommended set of elements pulling together elements from the main Preservation Metadata Initiatives and others devised by the Working Group. This set of metadata elements are based in the OAIS Model.

13. Potter, Maureen (2002). XML For Digital Preservation: XML Implementation Options for E-mails. Digital Preservation Testbed, The Netherlands. Retrieved October 12, from:

This article, as well as others included in this web-site, points to the potential of XML as the right standard to store digital objects along with their metadata. Specifically, this article comments on experiences performed with four basic file formats (text-emails-databases-spreadsheets) and the implementation of migration, emulation, and XML for preservation. In the case of the experience done with emails (those are automatically converted into XML once they are transmitted to the digital repository and kept in that format) the results are promising. The article stresses that XML - as migration and emulation, - should be considered as a preservation strategy on its own.

14. Real, William. (2001). Toward Guidelines for Practice in the Preservation and Documentation of Technology-Based Installation Art. JAIC 40 (2001):211-231

Guidelines for the examination and documentation of art installations, with emphasis on technology based installations. The documentation set takes into consideration current preservation alternatives as well as aesthetic and ethical issues such as the challenges of documenting the intangible. It draws from traditional documentation techniques used in arts conservation.

15. Sample metadata for a letter from Alexander Melville Bell to Alexander Graham Bell. The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress 1862-1939.Retrieved October 15, 2002, from D:\Sample Metadata Library of Congress.htm

This sample shows how the Library of Congress handles metadata for a collection of digitized letters at different levels: Set;Aggregate;Primary Object;Intermediate Object;Terminal Object.

16. Thibodeau,K. (2001). Building the Archives of the Future. D-Lib Magazine February 2001. Retrieved October 28, 2002 from,

The author expresses the vision of NARA about the future digital archives. It expresses the difficulties that digital objects pose for their long term preservation and explains how NARA is cooperating with other institutions to overcome the main challenges of electronic media. To the author those challenges have to do with obsolesce of digital media, lack of standards, and keeping up with technology in a constructive way. It proposes long term preservation models for digital media inspired by the concept of records continuum, what expresses the importance of communication between records management and archives.

17. Vitale, Thimothy. (2001). Techarchaeology:Works by James Coleman and Vito Acconci. JAIC 40 (2001):233-258

Case study of documentation and preservation of two art installations created with 25 years of difference. Useful to understand the difficulties that are faced when media technologies deteriorate and had to be reformatted. Documentation about the artist's intent and about creation is fundamental to the preservation of the work.