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<!-- Creation elements. -->


<record identifier>0001</record identifier>

<creator>Molly Wheeler</creator>

<title>Embossed Disc Technology</title>

<subject>embossed discs</subject>

<language>American English</language>

<media type>paper</media type>

<format>MS Word 2002</format>

<record type>term paper</record type>

<date filed>September 25, 2002</date filed>

<publication date>September 29, 2002</publication date>

<date received>September 31, 2002</date received>

<originating organization>Graduate School of Library and Information Science </originating organization>

<addressee>Pat Galloway</addressee>


<!-- Term paper elements. -->


<term paper>

 <title page>

 <author>Molly Wheeler</author>

 <due date>September 31, 2002 </due date>

 <course title>Preservation Class</course title>

 <instructor>Pat Galloway</instructor>

 < title>Embossed Disc Technology</title>

 </title page>


<!-- Appraisal, inventory, and disposal elements. -->


<location>SYSTEM C:\fall2002</location>

<aggregation level name>LIS389c.20</aggregation level name>

<aggregation level id>13304</aggregation level id>

<aggregation level status>open</aggregation level status>

<folder name>assignments</folder name>

<folder id>389.a</folder id>

<folder status>open</folder status>

<coverage>fall 2002 semester</coverage>


<vital record>no</vital record>

<retention status>permanent</retention status>

<relation>annotated bibliography</relation>

<disposition action>transfer</disposition action>

<disposition action trigger>one month after semester close</disposition action trigger>

<disposition date></disposition date>

<disposition authority>Molly Wheeler</disposition authority>


<!-- Transfer and authenticity elements. -->


<transfer media type>MS Word 2002 file</transfer media type>

<transfer number>00001</transfer number>

<number of discrete records>1</number of discrete records>

<size of transfer file package></size of transfer file package>

<transfer initiator>Molly Wheeler</transfer initiator>

<transfer receiver>Patricia Galloway</transfer receiver>

<date of transfer>October 8, 2002 </date of transfer>

<time of transfer>21.10.34</time of transfer>

<encryption method>PKI</encryption method>

<data compression>no</data compression>

<restrictions on access>none</restrictions on access>

<validation type>digital signature</validation type>


<!-- Accession elements -->


<accession number>2002-1</accession number>

<agency authorization   >authorized</agency authorization>                 

<record authorization>authorized</record authorization>          

<security classification>minimum security</security classification>

<file size>24 kb</file size>

<original toolset>Microsoft Word, Windows Millenium</original toolset>

<original filepath>C:/My Documents/Audio Preservation/termpaper.doc</original  filepath>

<record function>assignment for a class</record function>



<record match with message digest>exact match</record match with message digest>

<storage location in archives>NARA server, C:/Molly Wheeler records</storage location in archives>


<!-- Descriptive elements -->


<description>The following document is a term paper describing embossed disc technology.  Although the paper primarily focuses on the embossing process with regard to uncoated aluminum discs, other commonly used embossed discs are also briefly covered.  This paper begins with the early history of recorded sound (Edison, 1877) and follows the embossing practice of discs through its life cycle</description>

<use format>text/xml</use format>

<access restrictions>none</access restrictions>

<use restrictions>educational use only, not for publication purposes</use restrictions>

<date digital>September 31, 2002</date digital>

<publisher>University of Texas at Austin</publisher>

<coverage>evolution of embossed discs, 1877-?</coverage>


<!--Preservation elements-->

<!--object stability elements-->

<!-- representation elements -->

<file description> Text <file description>

<format and version> Microsoft Word 97</format and version>

<compression> .zip file</compression>

<character set> ASCII</character set>

<significant properties> it is determined that the significant property of this document is the intellectual content of the text as well as the “look and feel” of the text </significant properties>


<!-- fixity elements -->

<access inhibitors>

<password protection> yes</password protection>

<password> use password “regina”</password>

<watermark> Digimarc Professional </watermark>

</access inhibitors>

<access facilitators>

<finding aid> NARA Molly Wheeler Records Finding Aid</finding aid>

<navigational links> http://www.archives.gov/wheeler/finding_aid.html</navigational link>

</access facilitators>


<!-- preservation process elements-->

<preservation process>

<description of process> Copy from zip disk to NARA server. Migrate from Microsoft 97 to Microsoft 2002</description of process>

<responsible agency> NARA </responsible agency>

<how process was carried out> Paper was identified as relevant and uploaded to NARA server using Secure Shell. Opened and saved in Microsoft Word 2000</how process was carried out>

.<process guidelines>Transfer followed specifications in accession contract</process guidelines>

<process guidelines> Uploaded onto NARA server in accordance with preservation guidelines as outlined by the RLG Preservation Working Group on Digital Archiving </process guidelines>

<process date and time> 10252002161502 to 102520021611513 </process date and time>

<result> all files converted successfully </result>

<process rationale> The object was transferred to NARA server for preservation storage and to enable future preservation processes.</process rationale>

<changes> file name was modified to identify new carrier</changes>

<description of rendered content> Content Data Object consisting of an ASCII file of numbers may be clarified as a term paper describing embossed disc technology. </description of rendered content>

</preservation process>


<!--preservation management elements-->

<negotiation history> All preservation rights were negotiated at time of accession on 09/31/2002</negotiation history>

<rights> All rights held by NARA</rights>

<reason for preservation> To create preservation master. Original manifestation was housed on unstable media. This will allow for future migration as technology develops and ease of access copies.</reason for preservation>

<original preservation condition> Microsoft Word 97 text document</original preservation condition>

<preservation master id> P0001M</preservation master id>

<preservation authority>

<preservation institution> NARA</preservation institution>

<responsible person> Jenny Hudson</responsible person>

<responsible person> Maria Esteva</responsible person>

</preservation authority>

<intended use> Preservation Master Copy</intended use>


<!-- technical environmental elements-->

<creation software>Microsoft Word 97-2002</creation software>

<transformation process>transforming proprietary (Microsoft Word) formatted data for human readable display</transformation process>

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<transformer engine name & version>Microsoft Word 2002 (10.2627.2625) </transformer engine name & version>

<parameters>graphical user interface (GUI)</parameters>

<input format>.doc</input format>

<output format>visual display</output format>

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<documentation transformation engine> Microsoft Word Manual 10th.Ed</documentation transformation engine>

<location documentation transformation engine>PCL GR 234 1998</location documentation transformation engine>

<minimum required transformation engine> Microsoft Word 6.0 95</minimum transformation engine>

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<creation operating system> Microsoft Windows </creation operating system>

<operating system>

<operating system name & version>Microsoft Windows XP Professional Version 5.1.2600 Service Pack 1 Build 2600</operating system name & version>

<location operating system>http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/downloads/servicepacks/sp3/default.asp?FinishURL=%2Fdownloads%2Frelease%2Easp%3Freleaseid%3D40842%26area%3Dtop%26ordinal%3D10%26redirect%3Dno

<documentation operating system> http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/server/evaluation/overview/default.asp</documentation operating system>

<operating system>

<minimum operating system>Microsof Windows 95</minimum operating system>

<creation hardware name & model> Dell Dimension 2300</creation hardware name & model>

<hardware environment>

<hardware environment name & model>Dell Dimension 8250</hardware environment name&model>

<microprocessor requirements>Intel Pentium 4 processors up to 2.8GHz</microprocessor requirements>

<memory requirements>1.5GN PC 1066 RDRAM</memory requirements>

<peripheral information> DELL P992 Monitor</peripheral information>

<storage information> 120GB Ultra ATA hard drive </storage information>

<documentation hardware environment>http://www.dell.com</documentation hardware environment>

</hardware environment>

<minimum hardware environment>DELL Dimension 2300</minimum hardware environment>



<paragraph>The concept of embossing a groove along an adaptable material was the very first in recorded sound. <proper name>Edison's</proper name> original recorded sound invention in <historical date>1877</historical date>, the "<keyword>phonograph</keyword>," embossed a groove into tinfoil by the vibration of a recording point. <proper name>Edison</proper name> was quickly caught up to, in <historical date>1887</historical date>, by <proper name>Charles Sumner Tainter</proper name> & <proper name>Chichester Bell</proper name>, who together developed <proper name>Edison's</proper name> idea further into the             "<keyword>graphophone</keyword>," and engraved sound's modulations into wax, in place of <proper name>Edison's</proper name> embossment of foil. This advancement allowed for commercial development since the cylinders could be played more than the precious few times that <proper name>Edison's</proper name> tin foil phonograph made possible. The issue of embossment versus engraving became the central argument in the licensing wars that ensued between the phonograph and graphophone inventors. Embossment in the recording process disappeared for several years, persisting only in zinc disc recording, until the arrival of instantaneous recordings, when it was employed steadily for nearly two decades.



            <paragraph>The primary discs that were recorded by an embossing process were uncoated aluminum discs, which will be the focus of my paper. However, there were several other commonly used          embossed discs and I will briefly cover these as well.




 <notes>This paper is not complete.</notes>


</term paper>